Nepal China Border Dispute Truth

Nepal China Border Dispute Truth

Current Situation in Nepal Border

its yet another audacious attempt of territorial expansion, China is using road construction in Tibet to occupy Nepali land and may establish outposts at the border in near future, said a Nepal government report.

The report has come days after the Chinese Army got into a violent clash with Indian troops at Ladakh border.

According to a list of 11 places prepared by Nepal’s Survey Department of Agriculture Ministry, China has encroached on 10 places which comprise of nearly 33 hectares of Nepalese land.

The report further said that China has been diverting the flow of rivers to increase its territory.

A total of 10 hectares of land has been encroached on in Humla district as Chinese construction works diverted Bagdare Khola river and Karnali river.

Six hectares of Nepali land has been encroached on in Rasuwa district as the construction work in Tibet brought diversions in Sinjen, Bhurjuk and Jambu Khola.

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According to international media and nepal source


China is widely expanding its road network in Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) due to which some rivers have changed their course and are flowing towards Nepal.

The rivers are gradually receding the Nepalese territories and if it continues like this, the rivers will cede the maximum portion of Nepal’s land towards TAR, said the report.

“If the receding of land by rivers continues, then hundreds of hectares naturally go towards TAR. There is a high possibility that over a period of time, China may develop Border Observation Post (BOP) of its armed police in those territories,” the document states.

It warned that there is “a high possibility that over the period of time, China may develop its Border Observation Post of Armed Police in those territories”.

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India China isuues

As reported earlier by international media, soldiers from China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and Indian Army were engaged in a fearsome clash in Galwan Valley which led to the death of 20 Indian soldiers and unconfirmed casualties on the Chinese side.

China had previously admitted they had casualties but did not reveal the numbers. During the military talks between the officers of the Indian Army and the PLA, it was confirmed by the Chinese side that one of their Commanding Officer had died.

Nepal Sources

Nepal’s agriculture department document said that patches of Nepalese territory in several districts had already been encroached by China and warned that china could take over more territory in the north if the rivers continue to change course.

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The loss of Nepalese territory due to the rivers changing course could run into “hundreds of hectare land”, it said. “If the receding of land by the river continues, then hundreds of hectare naturally go towards Tibet Autonomous Region. There is a high possibility that over a period of time, China may develop Border Observation Posts of its armed police in those territories,” stated the document.

Nepal China Borders

Nepal and China share about 1,414 kilometres long along the Himalayas. The survey department of Nepal has estimated that the changing course of 11 rivers had already cost Nepal 36 hectare, or 0.36 sq km, across four of its districts; Humla, Rasuwa, Sindhupalchowk and Sankhuwasabha.

This encroachment by China was first reported last year which led to several protests in Nepal. KP Sharma Oli, the Prime Minister of Nepal is accused of downplaying the encroachment to avoid deterring its ties with China.

Diversion Politics Of PM oil

Indian Army Chief General, M.M. Naravane, indicated that Nepal’s objection to India’s newly-inaugurated road via the Lipulekh Pass in Uttarakhand is likely at the behest of China.

Analysts believe that Oli channelled the public outrage against China towards India by altering the map and including Kalapani, Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh as part of its territory.


As reported by various media houses, a diplomat in New Delhi said PM Oli did not inform Parliament before it voted on the map earlier this month that he had ignored an offer of dialogue between the foreign secretaries of the two countries.

Instead, he gave parliamentarians the impression that his government was forced to push the envelope since New Delhi had declined his offer for dialogue.


Nepal-China Boundary Treaty


When we look back into the border business between Nepal and China, Sino-Nepal Boundary

As a consequence, Nepal-China Boundary Treaty was signed on October 5, 1961. After the agreement and followed by a treaty, border demarcation works with the erection of pillars and markers started jointly in the field.

To materialize the demarcation work, Nepal-China Joint Boundary Committee was formed and field survey teams had been deputed to the border areas. During border demarcation, many of the spots of various segments, the boundary line was demarcated without any disputes.

However, there were some debates, disputes and controversies in 32 places along the boundary, including the peak of Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest).

At the time of demarcation it was adopted by both parties, the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence and in a spirit of fairness, reasonableness, mutual understanding and most importantly respecting each other as Nepal and China have the equal rights and status in the international arena.

It is commendable that all the disputes, claims and counter-claims were settled forever in accordance with the principles of equality, mutual benefit, friendship, mutual understanding and accommodation.

With this spirit all the issues, except Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) had been settled by the Joint Boundary Committee.

Regarding the question of Everest, the dispute was settled at the prime ministerial level and it was ended during the visit of the Prime Minister Chou En-Lai to Kathmandu, as he stated in a press meet on 28 April 1960 that ‘Mount Everest belongs to Nepal’ (Bhairab Risal September 9, 1999, Patrika Weekly).

In connection to the demarcation all the disputes had been settled and resolved amicably by November 1962 with a good understanding, traditional friendship, long term co-operation and mutual trust within a period of one and half years.

After the completion of boundary demarcation work, Boundary Protocol was signed by the plenipotentiaries of both the countries on January 20, 1963.

Two issues have been emerged since 2007.

One of them is Border Marker Number 57, located at north of Lapchigaun (Korlangri Tippa) in Lamabagar area of Dolakha district. There is a discussion on the location of this marker, as Nepal has claimed around 6 hectares of land.

The second issue is the height of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest). China has proposed to write the height as 8844.43 meter on the Nepal-China Strip-map. But Nepal is firm to mention the traditional height as 8848 mtr.

China has pressed to take the so called rock height of Quomulungma (Mount Everest). On the contrary, Nepal has pleaded that unless and until we measure ourselves the height of Sagarmatha, we shall stuck on the traditional height. The next logic is that the snow height has been maintained for all the mountains by almost all the countries of the world. So the issues have been entangled and stranded.

During the demarcation in 1961-62, the disputed and amicably resolved 32 spots including the Mount Everest and presently emerged two minor issues have been tabulated as followings:


Serial Number of Disputed Area Name of the Districts of Nepal Disputed and Resolved Spots and Areas* Name of China’s Tibetan County
1 Darchula Tinkar Lipu Pass Burang
2 Darchula Chhangru Burang
3 Darchula Chhangda Dosandh Burang
4 Humla Hilsa Burang-Drongpa
5 Humla Nalakamkar Himal & Pass Drongpa
6 Humla Naara Pass Drongpa
7 Mustang Limi Drongpa
8 Mustang Chhoten Marpo Saga
9 Mustang Ghyutoo Saga
10 Gorkha Rui Village (near Aattharasaya Stream) Kyirong
11 Gorkha Yangra Himal Kyirong
12 Rasuwa Rasuwasgadhi (near the bridge) Kyirong
13 Rasuwa Bhangre and Sanjung (8 pasture land) Kyirong
14 Rasuwa Langtang Himal Nyalam
15 Sindhupalchowk Babuk Chuksa Nyalam
16 Sindhupalchowk Draam Nyalam
17 Sindhupalchowk Khasa Nyalam
18 Sindhupalchowk Kharane Tippa Nyalam
19 Dolakha Ralung/Dalung (north of Lamabagar) Tingri
20 Dolakha Lapchi (Korlanfpariko Tippa) Tingri
21 Dolakha Sotham, Sokta, Lunam (Lamabagar Area) Tingri
22 Dolakha Raalam Tingri
23 Dolakha Gaurishankar Himal Tingri
24 Dolakha Tippa of the source of Jamur Stream Tingri
25 Solukhumbu Nangpala Pass Tingri
26 Solukhumbu Sagarmatha (Mount Everfest) Tingri
27 Sankhuwasabha Thudaam Tingri
28 Sankhuwasabha Popti Pass Tingkye
29 Sankhuwasabha Kimathanka Tingkye
30 Sankhuwasabha Lungdep, Chyanga (northof Kimathank a) Tingkye
31 Sankhuwasabha Ragla Pass  
32 Taplejung Tiptaala Pass Tingkye
Presently Emerged




Discussion on the location of Border Marker 57 (north of Lapchi Village). Nepal says it is misplaced. Nyalam-Tingri
2 Solukhumbu Height of Sagarmatha (Everest). China says 8844.43 mtr whereas Nepal says 8848 mtr traditional height. Tingri

Source: Nepali, Chittaranjan (April 20, 1964), Nepal-China Boundary Treaty, His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, page 33 and other sources.